This book covers all aspects of the technology and physics of infrared, visible-spectrum,and white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) made from III–V semiconductors. The book reviews elementary properties of LEDs such as the electrical and optical characteristics. The author also reviews advanced device physics including high-efficiency device designs,light extraction,radiati ve and non-radiative recombination dynamics,spontaneous recombination in resonant-cavity structures, and packaging. The reader is introduced to areas related to visible-spectrum and white LEDs such as human vision,photometry ,colorimetry ,and color rendering. Application of infrared and visible-spectrum LEDs in silica fiber,plastic fiber,and free-space communication is discussed. Extensive semiconductor material data, device design data,and analytic formulas governing the operation of LEDs are provided. Exercises and illustrative examples are used to reinforce the topics discussed. An introductory chapter reviews the historical developments and milestones of LED research and development. This textbook will be of interest to scientists and engineers working on LEDs, notably in lighting,illumination and signage,and also to graduate students in electrical engineering,applied physics,and materials science. e. fred schubert received his MS degree in Electrical Engineering (Dipl.-Ing.) with honors from the University of Stuttgart,German y,in 1981,and his Ph.D. degree (Dr.-Ing.) with honors in 1986,also in Electrical Engineering from the University of Stuttgart. From 1981 to 1985 heworked on compound semiconductor crystal growth at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research,Stuttgart,as a doctoral student. In 1985,he joinedAT&TBell Laboratories in Holmdel,NJ as a Postdoctoral Fellow. From 1988 to 1995,he was Principal Investigator in the Research Division ofAT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill,NJ. In 1995,he joined Boston University and was appointed tenured Full Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Affiliated Member of the Photonics Center. At Boston University, he was responsible for GaN materials characterization and the fabrication and testing of compound semiconductor devices,in particular GaN-based devices. In 2002 he was appointed Professor of Electrical,Computer ,and Systems Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy,Ne w York. At Rensselaer,he holds the Constellation Chair in Future Chips.